By Andreas Faludi (Eds.)
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Extra resources for A Reader in Planning Theory
T h e preparation of the short-term plan thus calls for identification and analysis of currently pursued goals (as they may be found, for example, in explicit or implicit form in budgets and other public documents). Goals in opposition to the accepted ones, when held by those with significant power, must also be given attention. A middle-range plan (perhaps for a five-year period) provides an opportunity to mesh the extreme points of view regarding societal change which are expressed in the other two plans.
We may find that for some purposes value analysis should concentrate on the internal states, such as those previously discussed, while, for other purposes, study can more fruitfully focus on the external. As one proceeds from more general to more specific values, the external elements seem more evident, dominant, and measurable. T o lend substance to our discussion of internal states, let us focus on 20 values such as health, wealth, and power, which might be considered values at a middle range of generality.
That there is a common element to all planning. T h e paper also expands on differences between the United States and Great Britain. Drawing valid inferences from the usually more advanced American experience depends on th * correct appreciation of the divergence between assumptions underlying ins tutions on both sides of the Atlantic. Her paper advances understanding by demonstrating how the traditional trust in public authority, heightened by the feeling of "togetherness" during and immediately after the war, has impeded criticism of British planning.