By Peter Jarvis
Discussing such issues as democracy and citizenship, this publication is the 1st systematic try and examine grownup schooling from a political viewpoint.
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It appears, in some ways, to espouse a form of anti-intellectualism. Nisbet (1986:31–2) suggests: At stake in the conservative appeal to prejudice in human behaviour is a whole type of knowledge. It is the kind of knowledge that William James described as ‘knowledge of’ in contrast to ‘knowledge about’. The first is the knowledge we acquire simply through experience, through direct exposure to life or at least major areas of life. Its essence is practicality. It becomes an integral part of our character because its origins lies in the process of habituation, or converting to generalized predisposition or ‘instinct’ the knowledge gained through experiment, conscious or unconscious, and ordinary trial and error.
Indeed, the knowledge that previous generations learned must be transmitted to the present generation and this can be undertaken through traditional teaching, since discovery learning techniques are not really necessary nor efficient in transmitting that which is already known. Abstract intellectualism does not find a great deal of favour with conservatives, so that the universities’ traditional freedoms and functions have suffered greatly, especially in the manner that philosophy departments have become regarded as optional extras to the university scene.
Theory and Practice in the Study of Adult Education, London: Routledge. Weber, M. (1964) The Theory of Social and Economic Organisations, New York: The Free Press. Tunstall (eds) Adult Education for a Change, London: Hutchinson. 36 ADULT EDUCATION AND THE STATE White Paper (1991) Further Education and Training for the 21st Century, London: HMSO. Wiltshire, (1973) ‘The concepts of learning and need in adult education’ in Studies in Adult Education, 5(1) April. 3 STATE POLICY, JUSTICE AND ADULT EDUCATION Whilst the minimal state theorists maintain that the state should play as little part as possible in civic society, it has become clear throughout this analysis that the state, by virtue of its nature, must control, even if it seeks to minimise the amount of its intervention.