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By Edited by: Assoc. Costas Sikalidis

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Cooling the crystal hundreds of degrees below TB, the polar nanoregions become frozen in a nonergodic state at around the freezing temperature (Tf) which can be irreversibly transformed into a ferroelectric state below Tf. The substitution of Ti4+ ions for the (Mg1/3Nb2/3)4+ ions in the B site of PMN-PT results in a long-range breaking leading to complex domain structures (Ye & Dong, 2000). , 1996). In the past decade, intensive research work was undertaken on the scientific understanding of the MPB nature in ferroelectric solid solutions (Noheda, 2002).

379-392. Kasper, R, F Bärecke, M Al Wahab, M Harmann, und Matthias Hartmann. “ Actuator 2008. Bremen, 2008. 927-930. Kasper, R, M Al Wahab, W Heinemann, K Kostadinov, und D Chakarov. “ Actuator 2006. Bremes, 2006. 154-158. Kasper, R, W Heinemann, und A Wagner. “ Movic. Zürich, 1998. 231-236. 42 Advances in Ceramics – Electric and Magnetic Ceramics, Bioceramics, Ceramics and Environment Ruschmeyer, Karl. Piezokeramik: Grundlagen, Werkstoffe, Applikationen. RenningenMalmsheim: expert-Verlag, 1995.

J=2 (10) The possible variants of the basic links of the closed kinematic structures are derived using (8), which are presented in Table 1. In the table there are limitations on the difference (9) i ≤ 4, and on the number n0 of the basic links in the closed structure: i+3 n0 = ∑ n j ≤ 3 . j= 3 (11) Integrated Piezoceramics as a Base of Intelligent Actuators 29 The variants of the basic links shown in Table 1 allow closed structures synthesis by means of link coupling directly among them, or by means of sequential kinematics chains including one or more links of type n2.

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