By F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)
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4 B. 7 C. 4 D. 4 one. Food conditions are unfavourable for the development of a second generation. The typical life-history of Coccinella septempunctata L. within the Euro-Siberian region is as follows: One generation develops during summer, coinciding with the season of aphid abundance. The young beetles hide for about seven months between leaves or in crevices. Climatic as well as food conditions must be considered as favourable. - For five to zero months the average temperature falls below the development threshold, but never considerably.
This last generation develops in 217 days. Whereas winter is passed mainly in the adult stage, imaginal longevity, from spring to autumn, of the first to fourth generations, is rather short, and rarely surpasses four to six weeks. The armoured-scale ladybird Chilocorus bipustulatus, has 4-5 successive annual generations 18 . The 1-2 summer-generations which follow the spring maximum have a much reduced egg-number and undergo a rather excessive mortality. The adults of 2-3 generations may survive the winter, but it is mainly those ofthe last pre-hibernal generation which do so.
The potential increase of any animal, the parents of which die when the young generations appear, is, in principle, similar to that of Protozoa. , we meet the same scheme, always inhibited in nature by intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors. In insect populations of overlapping generations 33 p 300 B r, F! "' -' c zoo "' ,. YS )O 65000 ..... 60000 ~ ::> a F G so z,oooo ;: lO 0 ! 10 IHDIVIDUA~ lO SO 70 DAYS 90 0 300 1000 Fig. 5 . Unlimited and limited growth and age-structure of anima l populations.