By Giovanni Sartor, Pompeu Casanovas, Mariangela Biasiotti, Meritxell Fernández-Barrera
Legal ontologies have proved an important for representing, processing and retrieving felony info, and should collect an expanding importance within the rising framework of the Semantic net. regardless of the various learn initiatives within the box, a collective mirrored image at the theoretical foundations of criminal ontology engineering was once nonetheless lacking. This booklet bridges the distance, by means of exploring present methodologies and theoretical techniques to felony ontologies. It gathers sixteen papers, each one of them providing concerns and ideas for ontology engineering concerning a specific method of, or element of, the legislations: comparative legislations, case-based reasoning, multilingualism, complicated- platforms, sociolegal research, felony conception, social ontology, ontology studying, computational ontology, provider ontology, cognitive technology, record modelling, huge criminal databases, medical, linguistic and legal-technology views. The ebook will therefore curiosity researchers in criminal informatics, synthetic intelligence and legislations, criminal conception, felony philosophy, criminal sociology, comparative legislation, in addition to builders of functions in line with the clever administration of criminal info, in either e-commerce and e-government (e-administration, e-justice, e-democracy).
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Extra resources for Approaches to Legal Ontologies: Theories, Domains, Methodologies
In M. eu 1 A rich literature exists on the definition of explicit knowledge, usually to contrast it with implicit knowledge. A landmark contribution to the distinction is (Polanyi 1966), where explicit knowledge is defined as codifiable knowledge due to its propositional form. On the contrary, implicit knowledge is usually non propositional and therefore difficult to codify. G. Sartor et al. V. 2011 15 16 M. Fernández-Barrera and G. Sartor particular we can speak of an implicit or unspoken law that we can refer to as the discourse of legal practice.
Nevertheless, the method of division, consisting in the knowledge of how to divide forms into kinds, was already proposed by Plato in the Phaedrus and described in more detail in the Sophist. 2 The Legal Theory Perspective 25 explicit verbal description is made of a system of legal concepts, the author usually puts a special emphasis in marking linguistically the conceptual structure by using specific linguistic markers that describe the structure (such as x are divided in y and z; there are n types of x; .
Sometimes even new subsystems will be created, like labour law, consumer law, . . (Collins 1997: 64). Doctrinal systems of legal concepts can be thus considered dynamic conceptual systems, just like scientific conceptual systems are (Thagard 1992). The most significant efforts to provide the definition of a basic conceptual language of the law took place during the XIXth century. Indeed, partly influenced by the positivist paradigm, partly driven by the desire to give law a scientific methodology, decades of legal research were committed to this endeavour.