By Oliver Bond, Greville G. Corbett, Marina Chumakina, Dunstan Brown
This booklet offers a managed assessment of 3 broadly practised syntactic theories at the foundation of the tremendous advanced contract method of Archi, an endangered Nakh-Daghestanian language. Even user-friendly contract examples are perplexing for syntacticians simply because contract includes either redundancy and arbitrariness. contract is an important resource of syntactic complexity, exacerbated through the good variety of its morphological expression. think how the self-discipline of linguistics will be if professional practitioners of alternative theories met in a collaborative atmosphere to take on such demanding contract facts - to check the boundaries in their versions and consider how the predictions in their theories fluctuate given an analogous linguistic evidence. Following an outline of the necessities of Archi grammar and an advent to the striking contract phenomena present in this language, 3 certain money owed of the Archi info research the tractability and predictive strength of significant syntactic theories: Head-driven word constitution Grammar, Lexical practical Grammar, and Minimalism. the ultimate bankruptcy compares the issues encountered and the strategies proposed within the diversified syntactic analyses and descriptions the results of the demanding situations that the Archi contract approach poses for linguistic theory.
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Extra resources for Archi: Complexities of Agreement in Cross-Theoretical Perspective
Constituent order As is often the case with languages with ergative alignment, the basic constituent order in the Archi clause is APV, as exempliﬁed in (). ’ (Sisters: ) APV constituent order is characteristic of sentences without topicalized or (contrastively) focused constituents, and it is rather frequent, especially in stories (as opposed to conversations). However, other constituent orders are also possible, such as VAP, illustrated in (), and PVA, exempliﬁed in (). 5 Thus, in () there are four clauses, three of which are headed by non-ﬁnite forms: the ﬁrst non-ﬁnite clause is headed by the converb q’oc’oli ‘having made up’, the second is headed by the ﬁnalis dabɬas ‘unlock’, while the third non-ﬁnite headed by the negative converb verb heː ˁt’uši ‘not coming’.
Square brackets indicate that there is no speciﬁc segment that corresponds to the featural description provided, such that this grammatical information is realized through the lack of any inﬂection. Exponents of agreement In Archi, the morphological exponence of agreement varies across different types of target. Agreement can be realized by a preﬁx, inﬁx, or sufﬁx. ) The type of exponent corresponds in some measure to the different parts of speech. Here we provide a brief overview of agreement across different lexical classes, to allow the reader to follow the interlinear glossing of the examples.
Gender is a lexical feature of nouns (which function as agreement controllers), and an inﬂectional feature of all other parts of speech (functioning as agreement targets). Other than nouns and nominal adjectives, every part of speech in Archi has at least one member that exhibits agreement. The gender system in Archi is an example of a typical Nakh–Daghestanian system consisting of four genders, where genders I and II denote male and female humans respectively. All other nouns are distributed among genders III and IV.