By Patricia H. Clarke (auth.), Edward R. Leadbetter, Jeanne S. Poindexter (eds.)
Any department of biology relies for its development at the improvement of recent techniques and to a lesser, yet occasionally the most important, quantity at the removing of misguided notions. figuring out the jobs of micro organism required first the commentary that such minute creatures existed, and accordingly the exper imental demonstrations that their presence used to be worthy for the incidence of specific phenomena. during this first quantity, the authors evaluate the improvement of clinical knowing of the position of microbes as brokers of various common procedures. particularly absent is a separate evaluation of the historical past of microbes as brokers of affliction, a his tory on hand in lots of different courses. unfortunately absent is a evaluation of the his tory of microbes as brokers of inorganic modifications, a significant omission that resulted from the disease of the potential writer past due within the practise of this quantity. the subject will in fact be handled in later volumes, even supposing now not predominantly in a ancient demeanour. in a different way, the emphasis during this quantity is at the historical past of figuring out interrelationships among modes of bacterial life and the inanimate setting. those relationships have been validated lengthy be fore multicellular, differentiated or ganisms seemed as capability microbial habitats, and their acceptance and elucidation contributed vastly to the widened appreciation of bacterial di versity and the significance of those easier creatures to the physiochemical stipulations of the biosphere.
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Extra resources for Bacteria in Nature: Volume 1: Bacterial Activities in Perspective
Clarke, P. , and Lilly, M. , 1969, Enzyme synthesis during growth, in: Microbial Growth, Symposium 19, Society fOT General Microbiology (P. M. ]. ), Cambridge University Press, London, pp. 113-159. , 1872, Untersuchen über Bakterien, Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen, Bd. I, Heft 2, 126-224. , 1875, Untersuchen über Backterien 11, Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen, Bd. I, Heft 3, 141-207. Cowan, S. , 1962, The microbial species-a macromyth? in: Microbial Classification, Symposium 12, Society for General Microbiology (G.
A decade later, the Dutch microbiologist Beijerinck (1901) isolated the aerobic Azotobacter and showed that nitrogen fixation was not confined to an aerobic organisms. Earlier, symbiotic nitrogen fixation had been demonstrated with leguminous plants. " Although nodules were observed on the roots of leguminous plants, their significance was not recognized until many years later (see Benson, this volume). Hellriegel and Wilfarth reported experimental evidence for the view that nodulation was essential for nitrogen fixation to take place and deduced that a "soil ferment" was involved in this process.
Several investigators used chemostat culture as a tool for studying microbial evolution. Novick and Szilard (1950), in one of the classical papers on this subject, discussed the use of the chemostat for selecting spontaneous mutants. Later, Horiuchi et al. (1962) isolated mutants of E. coli that were hyperconstitutive for the production of ß-galactosidase, and continuous culture became one of the general methods for the isolation of constitutive mutants. Inderlied and Mortlock (1977) selected mutants of Klebsiella aerogenes that produced ribitol dehydrogenase activities tenfold higher than the wild type after about 48 generations in the chemostat.