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By Edward A. Birge

Genetic investigations and manipulations of micro organism and bacteriophage have made very important contributions to our easy knowing of residing cells and to the improvement of molecular biology and biotechnology. This quantity is a survey of the genetics of micro organism and their viruses, and it presents scholars with a complete advent to this quickly altering topic. The ebook is written for top point undergraduates and starting graduate scholars, rather those that have had an introductory genetics course.

The 5th variation has been generally revised to mirror fresh advances within the box. The ebook now has a reader-friendly glance, with end-of-chapter questions, "Thinking forward" and "Applications" packing containers to problem scholars’ comprehension and insights. an entire word list of ordinary phrases has been revised and increased.

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Extra resources for Bacterial and Bacteriophage Genetics

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Bacterial oriC is a highly conserved structure among the Bacteria. Many genes having the same functionality occur in the same map order in different Bacteria, and there is extensive amino acid sequence homology among DnaA proteins. In E. coli, DnaA protein associates with ATP and 20–40 of these complexes bind to specific 9 base pair (bp) sites (DnaA boxes) in the oriC region (located about 45 kb from the DnaA gene) to create a nucleosomelike structure with DnaA at its core (Fig. 2). In B. subtilis and many other Bacteria, oriC is adjacent to dnaA.

This is roughly equivalent to taking a twostranded wire rope, coiling it on the ground, and then gluing the ends together so that the extra turns become an integral part of the structure and give a torsional tension to the structure. On a molecular scale, superhelical turns are added or removed by a group of enzymes known as topoisomerases, which act to change only the topology of a DNA molecule and not its base sequence. Super- 18 Chromosome Structure helicity can be added in a positive sense, in which case the normal helix is coiled tighter, or in a negative sense, in which case the normal helix is coiled more loosely (Fig.

The DNA was labeled with tritiated thymidine for two generations and then extracted from the cell using the enzyme lysozyme, which attacks the cell wall. A photographic emulsion was overlaid on the DNA and exposed to the radioactive atoms for 2 months. As the tritium decayed, the beta particles that were emitted activated the emulsion in the same fashion as exposure to light. Upon development of the emulsion, silver grains were formed whose positions indicated the location of the original DNA molecule.

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