By Johannes Simon Vrouwenvelder
This e-book relates biomass accumulation in spiral wound RO and NF membrane components with membrane functionality and hydrodynamics and determines parameters influencing biofouling.
High caliber consuming water could be produced with membrane filtration techniques like opposite osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). because the worldwide call for for clean fresh water is expanding, those membrane applied sciences are more and more vital. essentially the most critical difficulties in RO/NF purposes is biofouling - over the top development of biomass - affecting the functionality of the RO/NF structures. this is often as a result of the elevate in strain drop throughout membrane components (feed-concentrate channel), the reduce in membrane permeability or the rise in salt passage. those phenomena bring about the necessity to raise the feed strain to take care of consistent construction and to wash the membrane parts chemically. This booklet relates biomass accumulation in spiral wound RO and NF membrane components with membrane functionality and hydrodynamics and determines parameters influencing biofouling. It makes a speciality of the improvement of biomass within the feed-concentrate (feed-spacer) channel and its impression on strain drop and stream distribution. it may be used to increase an essential technique to keep watch over biofouling in spiral wound membrane structures. such a lot earlier and current tips on how to keep an eye on biofouling haven't been very profitable. an summary of a number of strength complementary methods to resolve biofouling is given and an built-in strategy for biofouling keep watch over is proposed. Read more...
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Additional info for Biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems
D. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. 61 р1 47 Ba Inorganic elements in membrane elements mg mϪ2 a, b: Case studies labeled with a and b, which are discussed in the text and presented in figures with these labels. : not determined. 1 Water source: G, anaerobic groundwater; S, surface water; W, (pretreated) waste water. 2 Water treatment: A, aeration; RBF, river bank filtration; DMF, dual media filtration; CS, coagulation sedimentation; GACF, granular activated carbon filtration; O3, ozonation; RSF, rapid sand filtration; S, softening; SSF, slow sand filtration; UF, ultrafiltration.
Possible causes for the disparity in BFR values and biomass concentrations between the biofilm monitor and the membrane elements can be differences in hydrodynamics (less efficient mass transfer in biofilm monitor), material type and roughness (the biofilm monitor contained glass rings with a smooth surface) and influence of filtration of water in the membrane elements or combinations thereof. A drawback of the biofilm monitor is that the development of the biofilm in time is assessed by periodic sampling and analysis by skilled personnel.
Studies at 15 full-scale and pilot plant NF and RO membrane installations were performed to diagnose biofouling. To quantify biofouling, several biomass parameters in membrane elements were investigated during membrane autopsies and compared with the pressure drop increase in membrane installations with different types of feed water. Several biological parameters of the feed water were included in the study to evaluate whether water quality parameters are an appropriate alternative for the laborious destructive membrane studies to quantify biofouling (Chapter 2).