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By David J.H. Phillips

Twenty years in the past, researchers wishing to spot infected components in aquatic environments normally took water samples, and analysed them badly (as we've on account that chanced on) for a couple of "pollutants" that have been of topical word on the time (and which can be quantified via the tools then available). this day, using aquatic organisms as biomonitors rather than water research has turn into common, and lots of nationwide and interna­ tional programmes exist worldwide concerning such experiences. We think that this pattern will proceed, and feature whole religion within the method (when it truly is hired correctly). we are hoping that the subsequent textual content assists in a few half achieve this objective, such that the standard of our most elementary worldwide source -water - is sufficiently safe sooner or later. DAVE PHILLIPS, PHIL RAINBOW England, March 1992 vii Acknowledgements Our thank you for contributions to this booklet are as a result of a number of contributors and teams, for various purposes. first of all, a co-authored e-book is usually a triumph, and we belief that the subsequent textual content is a suitable compromise of the perspectives of 2 person authors, on a fancy and constructing subject. Secondly, a number of the rules herein have crystallised during the last twenty years because the box has grown, and we're separately and jointly thankful to a couple of researchers for his or her perception and assistance.

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100. 1980 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. Amazon Venture c BrotasC Maysun C Orleansc Valparaiso c 1986 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 1987 139. Cabo Pilarc Novaa Grand Eagle C Marinac Napoc Patmosc Almakc Alvenus c Ariannac Gloryc Puerto Ricanc 1984 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 1985 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. Honam Jadec Monemvasiac SFI72 C Sivandc 120. 121. 122. 123. Table 6 Compendium of major oil spills from vessels between 1974 and early 1989. All spills over 10,000 barrels are shown (after the Times Atlas and Encyclopaedia of the Sea, 1989) Cretan Star" Ellen Conway" Grand Zenith· Scorpio· Princess Anne Marieb Spartan LadY' Athenian Star Barge lOc Globtik Sunc Heiwa MaruC Olympic Alliancec Pacific Colocotronisc Scapbayc Shell Barge No.

The Framework Directive stated that toxicants included in the original Black List would only become liable to full controls as List I substances when Daughter Directives were promulgated by the EEC, being treated until that time as List II substances (Haigh, 1992). To date, limit values have been set for each of the 13 contaminants specifically included in the original Black List (see EEC, 1980, 1982a, 1983a, 1984, 1986a), and for a further four specific contaminants included in the original Black List under generic descriptors (Haigh, 1992).

The EEC sought to set limit values or emission standards (the latter set by reference to Environmental Quality Objectives, or EQOs) for Black List substances at the Community level, and to promulgate daughter Directives on individual substances. The vexed question of whether the limit value or the EQO approach should be employed, and the political disagreement between Britain and other EEC Member States on this matter, have been reviewed recently by Haigh (1992). While this provides interesting insights into the interface between scientific realities and political life, it is considered beyond the scope of the present review.

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