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By R G Berger; et al

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For instance: OH pH 4 pH~ Another bioprocess for synthesising esters uses Geotricium fragans. This microorganism partially metabolises leucine or related amino acids such as isoleucine by oxidative deamination. The addition of ethanol to the reactor results in esterification forming flavour esters such as ethylisovalerate in a one-step reaction. The product can be recovered easily from the exit gases by adsorption onto activated charcoal. NH2- CH - COOH O = CH - COOH I CHO 1 CH 2 CH2OH F ~ l CH 2 CH@ ....

Biotechnological routes to other organic acids have also been devised. Propanoic acid fermentation is important for both the flavour and characteristic holes of Emmenthaler cheese. 8 g 1-1 of acetic acid from 18 g 1-1 of sodium lactate after 5 days incubation [-24]. Similarly, succinic acid is important for both savoury, dairy and fermented beverage flavours because of its characteristic sour-salt-bitter taste. Kaneuchi et al. [25] have found that Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from fermented cane molasses can give up to a 70% molar yield of succinic acid from diammonium citrate.

Cerevisiae to saturate unsaturated lactones that can be extracted from Massoi bark oil [17]. Using the hydroxyacid approach, yeasts have been used to produce 8lactones from 11-hydroxypalmitic acid obtained from sweet potatoes or jalap resin (Fig. 11). In this process, the yeast has an absolute requirement for an odd number of carbon atoms between the carboxyl group of the fatty acid and its hydroxyl group [18]. An alternative approach for biolactone production is to produce the hydroxy fatty acid intermediate by microbial hydroxylation of a fatty acid.

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