By Ulrich L. Rohde
Written for an viewers of RF microwave engineers and graduate-level scholars, this article covers vital components of oscillator improvement: from basics, equipment & board expertise, provide noise, research tools, layout, and optimization methodologies, to sensible layout of varied unmarried and matched oscillators. With an emphasis on systematic composition of the full layout strategy, chapters contain transistor types, large-signal S-parameters, resonator offerings, calculation & optimization of noise in oscillators, validation circuits for wideband resonator VCOs, and extra. large appendices exhibit particular examples, calculations, designs, and CAD recommendations.
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Extra resources for Design of Modern Microwave Oscillators for Wireless Applications: Theory and Optimization
Another good example of the complexity of a VCO is presented in Figure 2-29. This oscillator is used in the Rohde and Schwarz portable receiver Model EB-100 and is used for battery operation. The oscillator operates at 1000 MHz, and the output is provided via inductive coupling to the resonator. The main inductor is the 20 nH value, and the 2 mH/100 nH transformer was chosen for output simulation. The phase noise of this oscillator can be seen in Figure 2-30. Another voltage-controlled oscillator, intended to be used in battery-operated receivers, is shown in Figure 2-31.
The BFP650 is speciﬁcally designed for oscillators [31 –37]. 3 FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS (FETs) For RF applications, three types of transistors can be used. The ﬁrst is a junction FET, which has been shown to be useful up to 1 GHz. 1 pF limits its use. It is mentioned here only for completeness. The other two FETs of importance are members of the GaAs FET family and the family of BiCMOS transistors. Recent advances in technology have push the BiCMOS process close to 100 GHz if the BiCMOS transistor is built on SiGe technology.
5 koh Figure 2-27 A 200– 400 MHz wideband VCO. 00E05 FDev (Hz) Figure 2-28 Phase noise of a dynamically tuned VCO. 2 Vcc 38 C A Diode 1 koh _l ib1 box71J bias + - 34 A 1 – 2 GHz VCO using four tuning diodes for an enhanced tuning range. Figure 2-14; however, the tuned circuit now operates in series mode, which means that the values of the feedback capacitors between base and emitter and from emitter to ground are different. The capacitor from the emitter connection to ground is now made variable and tracks the main tuning diodes on the left.