By Wolfgang Maichen
As many circuits and functions now input the Gigahertz frequency diversity, exact electronic timing measurements became the most important within the layout, verification, characterization, and alertness of digital circuits.
To succeed during this box an engineer must comprehend instrumentation, size thoughts, sign integrity, jitter and timing strategies, and facts. This publication provides a compact, practice-oriented review on most of these topics with emphasis on useable innovations and real-life guidelines.
Read Online or Download Digital Timing Measurements: From Scopes and Probes to Timing and Jitter (Frontiers in Electronic Testing) PDF
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Extra resources for Digital Timing Measurements: From Scopes and Probes to Timing and Jitter (Frontiers in Electronic Testing)
1) skin effect (slope ½) RDC (constant) 1 MHz 10 MHz 100 MHz 1 GHz log (frequency) 10 GHz signal amplitude Figure 13: Transmission losses – both skin effect and dielectric loss – increase with frequency. Above a certain frequency dielectric loss becomes dominant. reflection or crosstalk increased rise time reduced final amplitude slow settling time Figure 14: A signal transition degraded by ohmic losses, skin effect, dielectric loss, and parasitics, compared to the original (incident) signal shape.
21) As we will see later, a reflection of p percent means a timing error equal to approximately p percent of the signal rise time. Figure 12 shows a plot of the reflection amplitude versus the signal rise time according to above formula. #1. Electrical Basics 25 Figure 12: The size of the reflection caused by a parasitic element in the path depends on the ratio between the size of the parasitic (given by its time constant) and the rise time of the incident signal. 2 Gb/s with a rise time of Tr,signal,10/90 = 100 ps.
A way out of this is to use a passive analog delay line (a fancy word for a long, low-loss cable) to delay the #2. Measurement Hardware 43 signal so the trigger comes with a sufficient head start before the signal arrives, but losses in the cable prevent us from making this delay very large (more than a few 10 ns). At the same time it is equally difficult to look at things a long time after the trigger, because the whole interval has to fit on the screen and so large time delays mean our timing resolution will suffer.