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By Chris Pistorius, Boyd Davis, Sergio Sanchez-Segado, Thomas Battle, Jerome Downey, Lawrence May, Neale Neelameggham

The papers during this quantity provide the reader targeted details at the very important extractive metallurgy unit operations of drying, roasting, and calcining

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Extra info for Drying, Roasting, and Calcining of Minerals

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The leach solutions were sent to an outside lab for confirmatory ICP analyses (of the possible reaction products, only rare earth chlorides are soluble in cold water). Results and Discussion The initial scoping parameters were based upon a previous chlorination roasting study performed on neodymium and samarium oxides by Bell [8], In the present study, the scoping experiment 13 results revealed that neodymium, samarium, and holmium each exhibited exceptionally high oxide to chloride conversion efficiencies.

10] M. R. Stefania Massari, "Rare earthelementsascriticalrawmaterials:Focusoninternationalmarkets," Resource Policy, no. 38, pp. 36-43, 9 August 2013. [11] J. H. a. L. Niinisto, "Thermoanalytical Study on the Reactions of Selected Rare Earth Oxides with Ammonium Halides," Thermochimica Acta, no. 37, pp. 155-160, 4 September 1980. 18 Drying, Roasting, and Calcining of Minerals Edited by: Thomas P. Battle, Jerome P. Downey, Lawrence D. May, Boyd Davis, Neale R. Neelameggham, Sergio Sanchez-Segado, and P.

24 Temperature [C1 Figure 5. This 3-dimensional surface model illustrates bromination conversion efficiency as a function of temperature and NH4Br:Yb2C>3 molar ratio (1 hour time at temperature). The five data points superimposed in the high conversion region represent the results of the confirmatory experiments [6]. Based on the consolidated results of the statistical analysis and confirmatory experiments, there is a very high degree of confidence that roasting ytterbium oxide in the presence of ammonium bromide (at an initial NLLtBr to Yb^O^ molar ratio of 24:1) for 4 hours at 350 °C will result in greater than 90% conversion of ytterbium oxide to ytterbium bromide.

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