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By Dale R. Patrick

Comprehensive in scope, this publication, now in its totally up to date moment version, takes an applications-oriented method of electric distribution platforms. All serious facets of energy construction, distribution, regulate, conversion and size are awarded.

The authors position emphasis on real-world functions, reading electric distribution and linked approach operation from a user's or technician's viewpoint. using an ‘electrical energy structures' version enables the reader's finished realizing of electric distribution, using strength distribution as a key place to begin, after which utilising that dating to different vital linked platforms.

The ultimate bankruptcy of this new version is re-focused to stress the economics of distribution platforms, laptop energy requisites and present environmental concerns. The publication presents a precious table reference for the operating engineer, contractor or technician who wishes an intensive application-based consultant for locating the simplest options to modern-day electric distribution challenges.

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Another way to find power is V2 P= — R This formula is used when voltage and resistance are known but current is not known. The formula P = I2 × R is used when current and resistance are known. 41 42 Electrical Distribution Systems Formulas and units of measurement are summarized in Figure 3-1. The quantity in the center of the circle may be found by any of the three formulas along the outer part of the circle in the same part of the circle. This circle is handy to use for making electrical calculations for voltage, current, resistance, or power.

Since all circuits contain some resistance, a more practical circuit is the resistive-capacitive (RC) circuit shown in Figure 2-11a. In an RC cir- Basics of Electrical Circuits Figure 2-10. Capacitive circuit. 31 32 Electrical Distribution Systems cuit, the current leads the voltage by some phase angle between 0° and 90°. As capacitance increases, with no corresponding increase in resistance, the phase angle becomes greater. The waveforms of Figure 2-11b show an RC circuit in which current leads voltage by 30°.

Remember that the phase angle is the amount of phase shift, in degrees, between voltage and current in the circuit. Trigonometric ratios, which are discussed in Appendix C, show that the sine of an angle of a right triangle is expressed as: opposite side sine θ = ——————— hypotenuse Since this is true, the phase angle can be expressed as: sine θ = reactive power (var) ————————— apparent power (VA) Therefore, var = VA × sine θ. We can determine either the phase angle or the var value by using trigonometric functions.

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