By Gene E. Likens
Inland aquatic habitats happen world-wide in any respect scales from marshes, swamps and transitority puddles, to ponds, lakes and inland seas; from streams and creeks to rolling rivers. very important for organic variety, environment functionality and as assets for human existence, trade and relaxation, inland waters are a necessary section of existence on the earth. The Encyclopedia of Inland Waters describes and explains the entire simple good points of the topic, from water chemistry and physics, to the biology of aquatic creatures and the advanced functionality and stability of aquatic ecosystems of various dimension and complexity.
Used and abused as a vital source, it is crucial that we comprehend and deal with them up to we have fun with and revel in them. This notable reference brings jointly the superior examine to supply the elemental and complex details helpful for scientists to appreciate those ecosystems - and for water source managers and specialists to regulate and defend them for destiny generations.
- Encyclopedic connection with Limnology - a key middle topic in ecology taught as a expert direction in universities Over 240 subject comparable articles conceal the field
- Gene Likens is a popular limnologist and conservationist, Emeritus Director of the Institute of Ecosystems
- Research, elected member of the yank Philosophical Society and recipient of the 2001 nationwide Medal of Science
- Subject part Editors and authors comprise the superior examine staff within the field
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Additional info for Encyclopedia of Inland Waters, 3 volumes
The building of dams, storage reservoirs, and canal systems was at its height during the 1960s and 1970s, as illustrated in Figure 1. , for irrigation, hydropower, and water supply. Some were designed also for fishery and recreation. Water policies during recent decades have contributed to a tremendous increase in overall production, productivity, and improvements in food security. 94 billion tons in the early 1960s to over 2 billion tons at the beginning of twenty-first century. Per capita supply has almost doubled and improvements are noticeable in most developing countries, except in sub-Saharan Africa.
At the whole-lake scale, lake size and the distribution of sediments with depth determine total littoral habitat. Morphometric characteristics and the steepness of the littoral zone determine the relative abundance of sand, mud, rock, and macrophytes as habitat for micro algae. Lakes embedded in forested or undeveloped landscapes can have a substantial amount of submerged wood in the littoral zone (refer to relevant article in ‘see also’ section). Metaphyton occur periodically and often ephemerally in many lakes, but are a common feature in wetlands and in some shallow lake regions.
Per capita water consumption may therefore be as high in a poor country, where consumption levels are much lower, as compared with affluent countries in the temperate zone with advanced management systems. An improvement in GDP and per capita income would increase the demand for goods and services but also contribute to more efficient stewardship and management of resources. , China, India, and Vietnam, leads to an increased exploitation of water and other resources. Growth is also steady in Latin America and, to some extent, in Africa.