By M.Z. Lowenstein
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5 million toe (Refs. 24–27). S. timber industry now gets 50% of its energy requirements from wood residues. 7 million toe per year (OTA). 1. 5 and 2 million toe per year. Finland has stands of unproductive hardwoods that could give some 1. 8 million toe/year (Refs. 26, 27). In the EEC, by 2000, forestry and short rotation plantations could provide 28 million toe net. 9 million toe in 15 years with a value of $26,390 million in 1984 prices. 4 million. 3 million toe/year. 8 million toe from biomass (Refs.
1% of the annual oil imports. 7 billion (Ref. 22). S. alcohol industry now produces about 500 million gal from a total of 65 plants (80% from only 8 of these plants). Assuming a 10% blend, the potential demand is 6 billion gal of ethanol, or 12 times the present capacity. However, it is expensive to produce, with corn accounting for 50% of the price. 70 to make, so that a subsidy of 80 cents/gal to bring BIOMASS FOR FOOD OR FUEL : A WORLD PROBLEM? 23 the price down to the production cost of gasoline is essential to the survival of the alcohol industry.
68 oz. S. 5 kg per person per year, and is projected to fall to 63 kg by 2000. 9 kg, while intake of vegetable protein has increased by almost 18% (Refs. 11, 13, 38). 9 CONCLUSIONS There are excesses of both food and energy in the world at present. Many countries with food shortages could, with long-term planning, greater political and financial recognition for agriculture, and more research and development raise their crop production dramatically. Of greater concern, in our opinion, are the more serious consequences of overuse of biomass as a source of energy.