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By Dr S J Harrison, S J Harrison, Dr D N Mottershead, D N Mottershead, I D White

Utilizing power movement and mass move as unifying subject matters, the dialogue is determined in a thermodynamic standpoint.

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This force acts as if the masses of the two bodies were concentrated at their centres, and of course is most familiar as the gravitational attraction of the Earth, which we call gravity. 4 THE STATES OF MATTER In the gaseous state the molecules are in constant motion and are continually in collision with each other. This movement is sufficient to overcome the main forces of intermolecular attraction which would lead to cohesion between the molecules. A gas can expand to fill the volume available to it and, conversely, it is susceptible to compression because the volume of the molecules is normally small compared with the total volume of the gas.

7). Entropy is a measure of the disorder of the system, but it can never be absolutely quantified. However, entropy always increases as a result of the operation of any natural process, so LiS ~ O. Therefore, change in entropy (LiS) can be quantified, though not in absolute terms. The Second Law tells us that all physical and chemical processes proceed towards maximum entropy. At this point there is thermodynamic eqUilibrium. 3 Energetics of systems It is the central premise of this book that energy and its transformations may be viewed as the best way both to systematize and to synthesize the facts and theories of physical geography and environmental science.

1 %) of the atoms of the biosphere; Fluorine (9) and silicon (14) are, however, better considered with the remaining 11 elements now known to be present in either plant or animal cells. Eight of these have atomic numbers between 23 and 34 vanadium (23), chromium (24), manganese (25), iron (26), cobalt (27), copper (29), zinc (30) and selenium (34) - while the remaining three - molybdenum, tin and iodine - have atomic numbers of 42, 50 and 53 respectively. All of these heavier elements, plus fluorine and silicon, are commonly but not universally present in living cells.

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