Download Evolutionary Ecology by Eric R. Pianka PDF

By Eric R. Pianka

Eventually, an e-book model of this now vintage textbook has develop into to be had. mostly in line with the sixth variation, released in 2000, this model is reasonably-priced. Written via famous ecologist Eric R. Pianka, a scholar of the past due Robert H. MacArthur, this undying remedy of evolutionary ecology, first released in 1974, will suffer for plenty of a long time to come back. simple ideas of ecology are framed in an evolutionary viewpoint.

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Estimated amount of incoming solar radiation that would intercept the earth’s surface in the absence of an atmosphere as a function of latitude. ] Hot air rises. 1). Thus, tropical air masses, especially those near the equator, are warmed relatively more than temperate air masses, and an equatorial zone of rising air is created. 2a). As this cold air moves toward higher latitudes, it sinks slowly at first and then descends rapidly to the surface at the so-called horse lati tudes of about 30°N and 30°S.

In a reduced atmosphere, oxidation quickly uses up such free oxygen. Both of these oxygen-generating mechanisms have been important; dissociation was probably much more significant billions of years ago before the ozone layer was formed than it is at present (it will become more impor tant as the ozone layer is further thinned by the release of chlorofluorocarbon gases). Ozone depletion has also increased ultraviolet radiation at the surface, which has almost certainly increased the frequency of skin cancers (though these may not be easily detectable for another decade).

Large lakes, such as the Great Lakes, also decrease thermal changes on adjacent landmasses and produce a more constant local temperature. 7). These orbital movements do not repeat themselves exactly but follow a complex celestial periodicity measured on a time scale of many thousands of years. For his torical reasons, these movements and patterns have been described from the point of view of the Northern Hemisphere, although by symmetry the same events occur some six months out of phase in the Southern Hemisphere.

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