By Diane Sainsbury
What modifications do welfare kingdom adaptations make for ladies? How do men and women fare in several welfare states? Diane Sainsbury solutions those questions by way of reading the U.S., Britain, Sweden and The Netherlands, whose welfare guidelines fluctuate in major methods. construction on feminist learn, she determines the level to which laws displays and perpetuates the gendered department of work within the relatives and society, in addition to what varieties of coverage adjust gender kinfolk in social provision. She deals optimistic proposals for securing larger equality among men and women.
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Additional info for Gender, Equality and Welfare States
For example, Sweden is one of the few countries with a uniform compulsory state program of occupational pensions which covers the entire labor force (until 1982 the self-employed could opt out, however). Third, public services are widespread and based on the principle of equal access. The universalism of the Swedish welfare state has distinguished it from that of the other countries. Nonetheless, universalism has been complemented by selective measures and extensive earnings related programs, and universal programs with respect to cash transfers were less dominant in the 1980s than they had been two decades previously (Nasenius and VeitWilson 1985: 146, Olsson 1986: 7-12).
They differ, however, with respect to the role of local authorities. In contrast to the more centralized pattern in the UK, both local and regional government in Sweden have an independent power of taxation and these levels of government are active in providing public assistance, health care, education, social services, and housing. The Netherlands and the USA represent the other end of the scale but also completely different variants. In both countries state provision in education and health is not as extensive, although the state plays a substantial role in funding.
A wholly negative view was called into question as too simplistic, and this perspective was subsequently replaced by an ambivalent position which either recognized the state as a non-determined entity or that certain state policies had positive effects for women. For example, Helga Hernes alternatively describes the Scandinavian state form as a "tutelary state for women" because of its corporatist nature and as a "women-friendly state" or a potentially women-friendly state (1987: 15, 135-7). Similarly, Carole Pateman acknowledges that even in the patriarchal welfare state certain measures have promoted women's independence (Pateman 1988).